A consequence of the increased oxidative stress is intimal hyperplasia, a thickintg of the vessel wall which can eventually reduce blood flow and lead to a re-blockage, or restenosis of the vessel. Protandim prevented initimal hyperplasia in saphenous veins cultured in vivo at arterial oxygen concentrations suggesting that Nrf2 activation may extend the life of arterialized vein grafts.
Intimal hyperplasia leads to late failure (3 to 10 years) following three common vascular surgeries:
- Caronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery, or CABG
- Angoplasty with or without stent insertion
- Carotid artery endarterectomy
Together, these three procedures put about 1.5 million Americans per year at risk for complications due to intimal hyperplasia.
Concllusions of the study: Saphenous veins used in arterial bypass surgery suffer from oxidative stress due to the higher concentration of oxygen in arterial blood.
Protandim was shown to protect the heart by increasing the expression of protective genes and by preventing the formation of scar tissue, or fibrosis, in the heart. The study showed that Protandim
also prevented capillary loss in the heart muscle of the animals, preserving right heart function despite the continuing stress of pressure overload. Protandim also prevented the death of heart cells and significantly lowered osteopontin (OPN-1) levels by more than 50%. Osteopontin is a factor that leads to scar tissue formation, a cause of heart failure. The researchers in this study described the ability of Protandim to effectively activate the transcription factor Nrf2, a signal to the cell’s DNA to increase expression of a network of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic genes.